1. What is SEO, Exactly? The goal of foundational SEO isn't to cheat or "game" the search engines. The purpose of SEO is to: • Create a great, seamless user experience. • Communicate to the search engines your intentions so they can recommend your website for relevant searches. 2. What Search Engines Are Looking For Search engines want to do their jobs as best as possible by referring users to websites and content that is the most relevant to what the user is looking for. So how is relevancy determined? • Content: Is determined by the theme that is being given, the text on the page, and the titles and descriptions that are given. • Performance: How fast is your site and does it work properly? • Authority: Does your site have good enough content to link to or do other authoritative sites use your website as a reference or cite the information that's available? • User Experience: How does the site look? Is it easy to navigate around? Does it look safe? Does it have a high bounce rate? 3. What Search Engines Are NOT Looking For Search engine spiders only have a certain amount of data storage, so if you're performing shady tactics or trying to trick them, chances are you're going to hurt yourself in the long run. Items the search engines don't want are: • Keyword Stuffing: Overuse of keywords on your pages. • Purchased Links: Buying links will get you nowhere when it comes to SEO, so be warned. • Poor User Experience: Make it easy for the user to get around. Too many ads and making it too difficult for people to find content they're looking for will only increase your bounce rate. If you know your bounce rate it will help determine other information about your site. For example, if it's 80 percent or higher and you have content on your website, chances are something is wrong. 4. Know Your Business Model While this is pretty obvious, so many people tend to not sit down and just focus on what their main goals are. Some questions you need to ask yourself are: • What defines a conversion for you? • Are you selling eyeballs (impressions) or what people click on? • What are your goals? • Do you know your assets and liabilities? 5. Be Consistent With Domain Names Domain naming is so important to your overall foundation, so as a best practice you're better off using sub-directory root domains (example.com/awesome) versus sub-domains (awesome.example.com). Some other best practices with domain names are: • Consistent Domains: If you type in www.example.com, but then your type in just example.com and the "www" does not redirect to www.example.com, that means the search engines are seeing two different sites. This isn't effective for your overall SEO efforts as it will dilute your inbound links, as external sites will be linking to www.example.com and example.com. • Keep it Old School: Old domains are better than new ones, but if you're buying an old domain, make sure that the previous owner didn't do anything shady to cause the domain to get penalized. • Keywords in URL: Having keywords you're trying to rank for in your domain will only help your overall efforts. Go here for more detail for Free SEO tips.